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音響系統與聽音房間的匹配

admin 2018-05-16 00:07:11 無損音樂交流 0℃
音響系統講究的就是一個匹配,其中音響系統和房間進行搭配是比較困難的。在音響展覽會上,可以說參展者沒有一家不抱怨自己的音響系統與展示廳房間不匹配的問題。再者,我為各層次的朋友搭配的部分較高檔次的系統(價格大都在1萬~2萬元),在各自的房間中產生的效果真是千差萬別。總結一點就是,不管你的音響系統檔次有多高,只要和聽音環境不匹配,全都是白白浪費銀子,一句話就是空間失真的問題。  一般地說,音源的負載是功放機,功放機的負載是音箱,而音箱的負載就是聽音的房間。  空間失真是指重放系統聲音輸出和進入人耳的聲音輸入之間的差別。這種失真主要是由于房間的諧振駐波產生的,由于房間中的墻壁、地板、天花板以及室內的各種物體,或者對某些頻率的吸收或反射。直達聲經過反射造成的起初的延遲聲和后來的延遲聲相互交織在一起造成失真,或者由于音箱位置擺放不好而使其方向性變窄,不能使原音聲場再現。對于以上問題,因各自的房間不同,以及各種設備的性能特點不一樣,哪怕是權威專家也難有統一的標準,只能根據各自的實際情況來調試搭配。  一、房間大小與機器功率之間的匹配功率放大器的功率輸出必須根據房間面積大小、高度、容積等條件來選擇,主要保證重放時有一定的聲壓,而且要和音箱功率基本匹配。功率太小音量不夠,太大又造成浪費。一般家用根據經驗,膽機20W~50W,石機50W~100W額定輸出功率就可以了。  二、聽音房間的空間尺寸為了避免產生駐波,房間的空間尺寸的比例要合適。消除或者至少避免聲波因四周墻壁在某一頻率上產生共振,可大大提高系統重放時的聲音清晰度。一旦共振發生將很難消除,一間尺寸和裝修都已經固定的房間,并不是什么高檔器材和音源都可以完美重放的。一般家庭的客廳比較容易出現駐波的頻率大約在80Hz~300Hz,根據很多資料的介紹,聽音房間的長、寬、高比例應該是1.618:1:0.6侶,如房間尺寸差異太大,可以在裝修時通過調整天花板吊頂的高度來彌補,而寬度則可以調節墻面裝飾物的厚度(如電視墻、酒柜墻、古董架等)來彌補。  三、聽音房間的混響時間對于不同尺寸、構造,特別是室內六面材料都不同的房間,都存在不同的混響時間。混響時間的長短主要和發聲清晰度構成一對矛盾,混響時間太短,聲音枯燥發干,混響時間太長,聲音混淆不清,大量細節將無法在聲場中重現,大大影響欣賞音樂的效果。混響時間就是指聲源停止發聲后,混響聲能衰減60dB所需的時間,其計算公式很多報刊均有介紹:T60=0.163V/sa式中:T60為混響聲能衰減60dB所需時間的符號,V為房間的體積,S為房間六面面積的總和,a為各面材料的平均吸聲系數。  我們知道大多數房間在裝修時,不可能都只針對音響的聲學要求來設計。而V和S都不可能有太大的改變(房價太貴),故只能根據實際情況來解決。  首先是音箱應靠房間墻壁的短邊(寬)擺放左右。音箱中心對中心大約等于0.7倍墻壁短邊尺寸,音箱背后離墻壁約0.5~1.2m之間,如果音箱開有后倒相孔,那就要多調整幾次。音箱喇叭面向前指向要求盡可能距離長一些,如能穿過飯廳或廚房通過門窗洞孔與外相通則更好,可以通過打開或關閉門窗洞孔的面積來調整聲波的吸收和反射。  其次,用高強度的石膏纖維板來做天棚,沿房間四周設置,寬度約0.7米,高度0.3米成內空型,完全能吸音,建議不要整個房間滿吊裝。墻面用石膏制成的工藝浮雕磚設置電視墻,用木工板制作的酒柜墻、古董架等,墻面已經占用差不多了,剩余部分用乳膠漆涂刷處理。混響時間就是指聲源停止發聲后,混響聲能衰減60dB所需的時間,其計算公式很多報刊均有介紹:T60=0.163V/sa式中:T60為混響聲能衰減60dB所需時間的符號,V為房間的體積,S為房間六面面積的總和,a為各面材料的平均吸聲系數。  我們知道大多數房間在裝修時,不可能都只針對音響的聲學要求來設計。而V和S都不可能有太大的改變(房價太貴),故只能根據實際情況來解決。首先是音箱應靠房間墻壁的短邊(寬)擺放左右。音箱中心對中心大約等于0.7倍墻壁短邊尺寸,音箱背后離墻壁約0.5~1.2m之間,如果音箱開有后倒相孔,那就要多調整幾次。音箱喇叭面向前指向要求盡可能距離長一些,如能穿過飯廳或廚房通過門窗洞孔與外相通則更好,可以通過打開或關閉門窗洞孔的面積來調整聲波的吸收和反射。  其次,用高強度的石膏纖維板來做天棚,沿房間四周設置,寬度約0.7米,高度0.3米成內空型,完全能吸音,建議不要整個房間滿吊裝。墻面用石膏制成的工藝浮雕磚設置電視墻,用木工板制作的酒柜墻、古董架等,墻面已經占用差不多了,剩余部分用乳膠漆涂刷處理。余下的就是室內家具和掛飾物了,一般家具的位置是不易改變的,主要是窗簾和墻掛飾物以及地毯的位置。如果房間的墻壁又平又硬,還有光滑的地磚、花崗石地面,存在很強烈的反射,這就要增加窗簾的面積,在墻壁上增加掛飾物,在地面上增加地毯,以便對中、高音進行一些對沖和改善。 Sound system cultured matchs namely, among them sound system and room undertake collocation is more difficult. On acoustics exhibition, can say to join the person that exhibit to do not have a sound system that does not blame his and the issue that show hall room not to match. Moreover, the part that I match for the friend of each administrative levels relatively the system of high quality scales (the price is in mostly 10 thousand ~ 20 thousand yuan of) , the result that produces in respective room is differ in thousands ways really. Sum up is, no matter your sound system class has many tall, want only and listen to phonic environment not to match, all is to waste silver for nothing, a word is the problem with lack fidelity space. Popularly says, the load of phonic source is result put machine, result putting the load of machine is sound box, and the load of sound box is to listen to phonic room. The space is broken is to show output of replay system sound and the sound that enter person ear input the difference between really. If arise as a result of the syntonic standing wave of the room,this kind breaks Allah, as a result of the room medium wall, floor, ceiling and all sorts of indoor objects, right perhaps the absorption of certain frequency or reflex. Direct sound wave causes through reflection at first defer sound and the defer sound later interweave together to cause each other lack fidelity, perhaps put as a result of sound box position bad and make its directional narrow, cannot make emersion of former sound sound field. To above problem, because respective room is different, and the function characteristic of all sorts of equipment is different, even if be authoritative expert has unified level hard also, can debug collocation only according to respective actual condition. One, the marries power amplifier power between room size and machine power is outputted must choose according to the condition such as room area size, height, cubage, basically assure replay from time to tome certain sound is pressed, and should match basically with sound box power. Power is too little volume is insufficient, too big create waste again. Basis of general family expenses experience, 50W of ~ of bravery machine 20W, power of rated output of 100W of ~ of stone machine 50W is OK. 2, the dimensional size that listens to phonic room generates standing wave to avoid, the scale of the dimensional size of the room wants appropriate. Because of,prevent sound wave at least all around wall produces resonance on some frequency, can enhance the sound definition when systematic replay greatly. Once resonance happening will be eliminated very hard, a dimension and decorate already fixed room, what be high-grade equipment is symphonious the source is OK and perfect of replay. The sitting room of average household appears more easily the frequency of standing wave is in about 80Hz ~ 300Hz, according to the introduction of a lot of data, the length that listens to phonic room, wide, high proportion should be 1.618: 1: 0.6 associate, if room dimension difference is too big, the height that can rectify ceiling condole to support through tone when decorate will make up for, and width can adjust the ply of metope ornamental (if wall of ark of TV wall, wine, antique is worn,wait) will make up for. 3, the reverberation time that hears phonic room is dimension, tectonic to differring, especially indoor the room with 6 different material, put in different reverberation time. The accident of reverberation time basically is mixed phonate definition constitutes a pair of contradiction, reverberation time is too short, as dry as a chip hair does voice, reverberation time is too long, sound is promiscuous not clear, a large number of detail will not return in sound field, affect the result that enjoys music greatly. After reverberation time shows acoustical source stops to phonate namely, the time that place of 60dB of attenuation of reverberation sound energy needs, its calculate formulary very much the press all has the introduction: In type of T60=0.163V / Sa: T60 wants the sign of time for place of 60dB of attenuation of reverberation sound energy, v is the bulk of the room, s is a room the summation of 6 areas, a is the average sound power absorption coefficient of each material. When we know most room is being decorated, the acoustics demand that is aimed at acoustics impossibly only will design. And V and S have too big change impossibly (house price is too expensive) , reason can be solved only according to actual condition. It is the short edge that sound box should rely on room wall above all (wide) put the left and right sides. Sound box center approximates dimension of short edge of 0.7 times wall greatly to the center, sound box backside makes an appointment with 0.5 ~ 1.2m from wall between, if sound box leaves,photograph aperture falls after having, that is about to be adjusted a few times more. The requirement is pointed to to be apart from as far as possible before sound box horn is faced a few longer, it is better to if can cross dining room or kitchen to pass aperture of door an opening in a wall and foreign minister,be connected, can adjust the absorption of sound wave and reflex through open or shutting the area of aperture of door an opening in a wall. Next, the gesso beaverboard that uses high strength will do ceiling, edge room all around setting, width makes an appointment with 0.7 meters, height is become 0.3 meters inside sky, complete can sound-absorbing, the proposal does not want whole room full hoisting. The craft anaglyph brick that metope makes with gesso sets TV wall, the wine ark wall that uses carpentry board to make, antique wearing, metope has taken up about the same, odd part brushs processing with emulsioni paint besmear. After reverberation time shows acoustical source stops to phonate namely, the time that place of 60dB of attenuation of reverberation sound energy needs, its calculate formulary very much the press all has the introduction: In type of T60=0.163V / Sa: T60 wants the sign of time for place of 60dB of attenuation of reverberation sound energy, v is the bulk of the room, s is a room the summation of 6 areas, a is the average sound power absorption coefficient of each material. When we know most room is being decorated, the acoustics demand that is aimed at acoustics impossibly only will design. And V and S have too big change impossibly (house price is too expensive) , reason can be solved only according to actual condition. It is the short edge that sound box should rely on room wall above all (wide) put the left and right sides. Sound box center approximates dimension of short edge of 0.7 times wall greatly to the center, sound box backside makes an appointment with 0.5 ~ 1.2m from wall between, if sound box leaves,photograph aperture falls after having, that is about to be adjusted a few times more. The requirement is pointed to to be apart from as far as possible before sound box horn is faced a few longer, it is better to if can cross dining room or kitchen to pass aperture of door an opening in a wall and foreign minister,be connected, can adjust the absorption of sound wave and reflex through open or shutting the area of aperture of door an opening in a wall. Next, the gesso beaverboard that uses high strength will do ceiling, edge room all around setting, width makes an appointment with 0.7 meters, height is become 0.3 meters inside sky, complete can sound-absorbing, the proposal does not want whole room full hoisting. The craft anaglyph brick that metope makes with gesso sets TV wall, the wine ark wall that uses carpentry board to make, antique wearing, metope has taken up about the same, odd part brushs processing with emulsioni paint besmear. The rest of is indoor furniture is mixed hang decorations, the position of general furniture is not easy change, basically be the position that curtain and wall hang decorations and carpet. If the wall of the room is made the same score again hard, still have smooth floor tile, granitic area, put in very intense reflex, this is about to raise the area of the curtain, increase on wall hang decorations, carpet increases on the ground, so that be opposite medium, high undertake a few pairs rush with improvement.

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