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如何選購膽機--電子管功放選購指南

admin 2018-03-28 19:40:00 無損音樂交流 0℃
一.初購膽機  膽機愛好者日益增多,從學生到商人、從職員到政治家,各行各界人士都有,有懷舊及收集愛好者、有革新派、自作派和"摩提"派,還有藝術家和作家。  懷舊愛好者多數年青時代與膽機有過一段緣,曾醉心于它的醇厚靚聲,在幾個不眠的夜晚,幾乎可以從膽中徐徐燃燒的火焰看到音響訊號在各級里放大,最后在音箱里還原;或曾是學校里的積極份子,可忘不了那一段吵吵鬧鬧圍在一起制作音響的日子。  收集愛好者把膽機當成古董玩物來收藏,有純粹收集名廠的產品,如WE就是他們搜索的對象,有的專收集三極管膽機,有的收集膽收音機。這些收集家中,有的只收不賣,真對膽機的熱誠可敬可佩,有的買機賣機,這也是一種積極推廣正當愛好的行為,當然愛好也須有經濟實力去支持才能永固。喜新棄舊型愛好者也可以說是革新派。聽厭了石機換膽機,聽了膽機還想繼續升級,也就是這班兄弟,把音響世界搞得轟轟烈烈。  膽機給自作派和"摩提"派帶來了大展身手的機會,什么三極管單端,五極管推挽,任何設計都去嘗試,換膽、換線、換電容、電阻,真是無所不"摩"。更各持己見,相持不下。  藝術家們喜愛音樂,在深秋湖畔,在隆冬的深夜里,那閃爍著的燈膽樂聲更帶來了不少的暇想與靈感。二.選擇膽機  市場上的膽機琳瑯滿目,有大眾化型和名牌產品。大眾化型產品價錢一般在一千美元以下,有專供音響愛好者自行制作的DIY ( Do it your self ) Kit。此類膽機線路與機體設計平平,用中等質量零件,部分產品由于廠家降低造價而忽略了機體外觀,此類機型線路設計雖然精簡,但故障也少,中等質量零件可能影響音質,但讀者不必擔心它的耐用性能,這類機很適合初入門的膽機愛好者。  歐美日廠家售賣KIT型機已經歷了數十年,他們無論在設計、配件、包裝與制作手冊上都下不少功夫。包裝精簡牢固,以郵購方式購買的讀者也不必擔憂購件在路途中受損。制作手冊更精心設計,圖文并茂,只要按部就班根據手冊裝機,即使對電學只有基本知識的大都能制作成功。碰到了困難,廠方也很樂意地去指導,KIT機通常比同樣的成品機便宜數百美元,年青愛好者學習了電學理論后可通過實際裝機進一步提高對音響的愛好。  名牌機敢于用料,一對WE 300B可比普通的300B價格高出數十倍。數十美元一只的電容,純銀接線,鍍金接口等都是名牌機的標準規格。特高價名牌膽機用的Parmelloy,芯片再配以純銀線圈制作的輸出火牛,其售價之高更是不想可知。  名牌膽機造型精心設計,制作細致巧奪天工,有如一件藝術品,其價值經久不衰。想買KIT或成品機,大眾型式名牌機,參考廣告上的技術規格和音響雜志行家們的結論肯定不會錯,不過最終還是以"量入為出"這四個字由讀者們自己來決定,在這里,筆者只能在技術性范圍內對讀者們提供一些意見。三.后級功率多大  膽機后級輸出功率一般不大,單端后級只有數瓦至十數瓦,單端并聯最多二三十瓦。多數推挽式后級三十至六十瓦,瓦數大的膽機后級造價昂貴,除非有特殊的需要,一般來說五十瓦以下的功率在40平方米的聆聽室已綽綽有余,喜愛膽機的朋友不須太追求大功率的膽機后級。揚聲器決定膽機的選擇,靈敏度低的揚聲器難推,但是讀者可放心,大部分揚聲器愛膽,一部只有八瓦A級Audion同樣可令靈敏度只有82.3db SPL的Rogers LS 3/5a表現出色。  膽機熱度高,尤其是功率大或OTL型膽機。單聲道80W功率的EL 34推挽后級大概產生等于200W燈泡的熱能,一只6C33C-B雙三極強放管溫度高達260℃!散熱問題不可不考慮。四.前級又如何  膽機前級有專供高電平輸入(CD,Tapedeck,tuner)的Line Stage和包括Phono在內的兩種,兩者價格相差頗大,不玩LP的朋友可不須買后者。  Line Stage最好有三只雙三極管放大、有Phono放大的則須有六只雙三極管,這樣的設計肯定設有負回輸并在最后一級以Cathode Follower低輸出阻抗輸出,購買前級必須選擇用料好的牌子,劣質變壓器會發生輕微的震動,騷擾平靜的音樂背景,不好的電阻用久后會產生噪音,電容更影響音質、插座、接線、線路板等都須一一仔細查看。  標準的前級須有穩壓設備,真空管穩壓設計占位大,最后能與放大部份分體,各燈絲都須用直流電電源。  前級也是一個輸入訊號總站,它的輸入座和調控功能須多樣,有EPL ( external processing Loop )設備的,還可以接Home theatre processor,制造左右兩聲道膽聲,音響效果在觀看歌劇時尤其顯著。五.燈膽是否難尋  推挽式膽機后級放大管一般沿用EL 34 ( 6CA7 ),5881(6L6),KT 88,6550,6V6,EL 84 ( 6BQ5 ),少數大功率膽機以高頻用6146B和807為后級膽,英制膽機多用6L6/5881,筆者不知其中原因,也許是它的出生早,設計家們對它的特性早已摸透。各廠現在都還在生產,有中國的曙光,俄國Svetlana和Sovtek,美國Groove tubes等。  EL 34也非常普及,價平的Svetlana和Sovtek產品質量都不錯。靚聲的KT 88和6550膽現已成收藏品,不過新產品也不少。  單端機后級普遍用300B,2A3,6B4,6080之類三極管放大管,也有用811,845,211之類的高頻強放管。在眾多單端機里,300B用得最廣,各廠現在都還在繼續生產此膽,甚至連停產多年的Western Electric也已重新恢復生產聞名的WE-300B,6080,811也不難買到,至于845,15,2A3,211之類的三極管就較難尋,也許只有中國還生產。WE最近恢復生產WE 212E/308B,此無敵三極管能產生超過300B十倍的輸出功率(單管單端輸出100W!),對要求高功率單端機的發燒友應該是喜訊。美國一些膽商也有出售二手貨膽,喜愛實驗的朋友可以廉價訂購。前級用的小型膽更不難買到,一些舊莊新貨( Nos,New old stock )珍貴膽也不缺。六.膽機靚聲是一個事實,不過它也有短處  燈膽工作時溫度高而且易破,家有小孩的尤其要特別小心,應放在通風而且不易接觸到的地方。膽機工作電壓高,在關機一段時間內也許還會有高電壓存在,萬一發生故障,不懂電學的讀者最好不要自行修理,懂電學的則須要小心從事。燈膽壽命普遍是數千小時,正常可用上一兩年,WE 300B就例外,它有四萬小時的壽命,可用上數十年!  看美國的CES,膽機產品有增加的趨勢,粗計也有七十余,膽機廠家展出他們的產品,比石機多了一倍,WE除了重產WE 274B和WE 308B外,也將重新生產WE喇叭和膽機,老將東山再起,大家拭目以待,洗耳恭聽。 One. Fan of engine of bravery machine bravery is bought first increasingly grow in quantity, arrive from the student businessman, arrive from the employee politician, personage of each all circles has, have nostalgic reach gather fan, have an innovation clique, make clique and " oneself rub promote " group, still have artist and writer. Youthful times and bravery machine had had nostalgic lover majority a paragraph of predestined relationship, what ever was bent on it is full-bodied beautiful tone, be in a few not the night of Mian, almost OK from inside bravery slowly flaming blaze sees acoustics question mark is in various li of enlarge, it is finally in sound box reductive; Or ever was the activist in the school, can not forget that paragraph cat-and-dog the life that surrounds the acoustics that make together. Collect lover to regard bravery machine as antique plaything will collect, have the product that collects a works purely, if WE is the object that they search, some collects dynatron bravery aircraft only, some collects bravery radio. In these collector, some closes not to sell only, really right of bravery machine true-blue and respected but admire, some buying machine sell machine, this also is a kind of action that extends proper hobby actively, like of course must also economic actual strength supports ability to always originally. Happy event is new abandon old model lover also can say is innovatory clique. Listen to be disgusted with stone machine changes bravery plane, listened to bravery machine to still want to continue to upgrade, namely this brother, make sound world dynamic. Bravery machine gives make clique and " oneself rub carried " clique to bring the opportunity that unfolds skill greatly, sheet carries what dynatron, pentode push-pull, any designs try, change bravery, change a line, change capacitance, resistor, it is not to have place really not " rub " . More each sticks to his own view, be locked in a stalemate. Artists like music, in bank of deep Qiu Hu, in the late night of midwinter, the lamp bravery cheerful voice that twinkling then more brought not little free time to want with inspiration. 2. The bravery machine on market of choice bravery machine full of beautiful things in eyes, have in a popular style model with famous brand product. Price of in a popular style product is commonly under 1000 dollars, have the DIY (Do It Your Self) Kit that makes for acoustics lover proper motion only. Circuitry of machine of this kind of bravery and airframe are designed flatly, with medium quality spare parts, partial product reduces cost as a result of manufacturer and oversight airframe exterior, although design of line of this kind of model is compact, but trouble is little also, medium quality spare parts may affect acoustic quality, but the durable function that the reader need not worry about it, this kind of machine suits very much first bravery engine fan of the introduction. KIT of sale of Euramerican day manufacturer machine already was experienced tens of year, no matter they are in design, fittings, pack go up to make great efforts with the manual that make. Pack compact and firm, the reader that buys with mail-order means also need not be anxious to buy be damaged in journey. The manual that make more elaborate design, graph Wen Bingmao, should follow the prescribed order to be installed according to manual only machine, although be opposite,electricity has basic knowledge only can make a success mostly. Encountered difficulty, manufacturer also very go coaching readily, it is cheap that KIT machine compares equal finished product opportunity normally hundreds dollar, the interest that actual outfit machine increases pair of acoustics further can be passed after young fan learned electricity theory. Famous brand machine dares to use makings, can compare common 300B price tower above to WE 300B number is decuple. Tens of dollars capacitance, pure silver-colored wiring, aureate interface is the standard norms of famous brand machine. Special the Parmelloy that machine of bravery of costly famous brand uses, chip matchs the output fire ox that makes with pure silver-colored coil again, of its price do not think high more knowable. Elaborate design of model of engine of famous brand bravery, make meticulous wonderful artical excelling nature, be like an artwork, its value lasts long. Want to buy KIT or finished product machine, machine of masses type famous brand, the conclusion affirmation of the technical standards on referenced advertisement and acoustics magazine experts won't be wrong, be being returned finally nevertheless is with " of " keep expenditures within the limits of income these 4 words by readers oneself are decided, here, the author can be in only technical a few opinions are offerred to readers inside limits. 3. Hind the class after much bolder machine outputs class power power is general not quite, the class after Chan Duan counts tile to come only ten tile, chan Duan is shunt-wound and most 229 tile. The class after most push-pull type 30 to 60 tile, cost of the class after the bravery opportunity with great wattage is high, unless have special need, generally speaking the power under 50 tile is in the listen respectfully room of 40 square metre already more than sufficient, the friend that likes bravery chance is not needed too the class after the bravery opportunity that seeks high-power. Loudhailer decides the alternative of bravery machine, the loudhailer with low sensitivity is pushed hard, but the reader can be at ease, major loudhailer loves bravery, one has Audion of 8 made of baked clay class A to be able to make the show of Rogers LS 3/5a that sensitivity has 82.3db SPL only outstanding likewise only. Bravery machine temperature is high, especially power big or OTL bravery machine. The class after the EL 34 push-pull of power of odd track 80W produces the heat energy that is equal to 200W bulb probably, a 6C33C-B double triode put tubal temperature by force to be as high as 260 ℃ ! Medicinal powder hot issue cannot be taken no account of. 4. Before class how the class before bravery machine has input for tall n only (CD, tapedeck, the Line Stage of Tuner) mixes two kinds when include Phono inside, both price differs quite big, the friend that does not play LP can be not needed buy latter. Line Stage had better have an enlarge of 3 double dynatron, beard that has Phono enlarge to have 6 double dynatron, such design is set for certain negative time be defeated and output with impedance of Cathode Follower low output in last class, the class before buying must choose to use the brand that has expected, inferior transformer can happen to shake slightly, annoy quiet musical setting, bad resistor is used long hind can produce noise, capacitance more affect acoustic quality, electrical outlet, wiring, circuit board to wait to must be examined carefully one by one. Of the standard before class must have stabilized voltage facility, design of vacuum tube stabilized voltage is occupied big, finally can with enlarge part fission, each filament must use dc power source. Class also is terminal of mark of an input question before, its input need diversity with adjusting control function, have facility of EPL (External Processing Loop) , still can receive Home Theatre Processor, make reputation of bravery of or so two track, when acoustics is watching opera especially remarkable. 5. Enlarge of the class after lamp bravery finds opportunity of push-pull type bravery whether hard is in charge of EL 34 (6CA7) of general continue to use, 5881(6L6) , KT 88, 6550, 6V6, EL 84 (6BQ5) , a few high-power bravery machine with high frequency with 6146B and bravery of the 807 class after be, imperial bravery machine is multi-purpose 6L6/5881, because of,the author does not know its Central Plains, the birth that perhaps is it is early, design home people feel already to its character fully. Each factory still is being produced now, have Chinese dawn, russian Svetlana and Sovtek, american Groove Tubes. EL 34 also gains ground very much, the Svetlana with flat price and Sovtek product quality are good. The KT 88 of beautiful tone already was become now with 6550 bravery collect article, new nevertheless product is not little also. The class after odd end chance uses 300B generally, 2A3, 6B4, dynatron of 6080 and so on puts bassoon, useful also 811, 845, of 211 and so on high frequency put a valve by force. In machine of numerous Chan Duan, 300B is used the most widely, each factory still is continueing to produce this a badder-like inner container now, already also restored even the Western Electric with old stop production to produce famed WE-300B afresh even, 6080, 811 buy not hard also, as to 845, 15, 2A3, the dynatron of 211 and so on is searched harder, only perhaps China returns production. WE restores to produce WE 212E/308B recently, this is inapproachable dynatron can arise exceed the output power with decuple 300B (sheet is in charge of Chan Duan to output 100W! ) , of chance of odd to demand high power end have a fever friend should be a good news. A few bravery business of American also have sell secondhand goods bravery, the friend that loves an experiment is OK and cheap order. The small-sized a badder-like inner container that class uses before more buy not hard, new money of a few old banks (Nos, precious bravery of New Old Stock) also is short of. 6. Bravery machine beautiful voice is a fact, nevertheless it also has the temperature when demerit lamp bravery works to be defeated tall and easily, the home has a child want special caution especially, should put in the place of ventilated and not easy bring into contact with. Voltage of bravery engine work is tall, closing machine there still perhaps can be tall voltage to exist inside period of time, in case malfunction, the reader that does not know electricity had better not be repaired by oneself, know a beard of electricity to want to take care to be engaged in. Lamp bravery life is universal it is thousands of hours, can use on 9 years normally, WE 300B is exceptional, it has life of 40 thousand hours, can use tens of year! See American CES, bravery machine product has addition tendency, thick plan also have more than 70, bravery aircraft manufacturer exhibits their product, the chance that compare stone is one times more, WE besides producing WE 274B and WE 308B again, also produce serious new student WE horn and bravery engine, veteran stage a comeback, everybody wait and see what happens, listen with respectful attention.

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